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What are the functions of planning and explain the planning process?

Jun 07, 2021 functions and process of planning, 586 Views
what are the functions of planning and explain the process of planning

What are the functions of planning and explain the planning process?

The function of planning are as follows:

Primary Function of Management:

Planning is the first function of management, no other function can be executed by the manager without performing the planning function because objective are set in planning only and other function depend on it.

Pervasive: planning is pervasive:

Planning is needed in all type of organisation whether large or small organisation, business or non-business organisation, profit or non-profit making organisation. Planning is needed at all levels of management as it is not an exclusive function of top management nor of any particular department. But the scope of planning is different at all levels and among different departments. For example, the high level of management undertakes planning for the organisation as a whole. Middle level of management does the departmental planning. At the lowest level, day‑to‑day operational planning is done  by  lower level of management.

Planning is continuous:

Planning is never ending process or it’s a never ending process. Plans are prepared for a specific period of time, may be for day, a month, a quarter, or a year and also one has to be in touch with the changes in the changing environment and in the selection in the best way. so after preparing plans, planner has to keep making changes in the plans according to the demand of the company

Planning focuses on achieving objectives:

Planning start with determination of objective. We cannot make plans in the absence of objective. After setting up the objective, planning decide the method and procedure and step to be taken for achievement of set of objective.

Planning is a mental exercise:

Planning needs application of the mind involving foresight, imagination and judgement. Planning is essentially an mental activity of thinking rather than doing, because planning determines the course of action to be taken. However, planning need logical and systematic thinking instead of guess work or wishful thinking.

Planning process:

Seven important step for planning process are :

Setting Objectives:

Planning process start with setting up objectives because all the policies and steps are framed for achieving the objective. Manager set up clear objective of the company keeping in mind the physical and financial resource of the company.

Developing Premises:

In the second process manager make assumption about the future, which are called premises. Assumptions are the base on which plans are to be drawn. It is the kind of forecast which is made by the manager keeping in the view existing plan and any past information about various policies.

Identifying alternative courses of action:

In the third step manager identifies the various alternatives through which the organisation can achieve its goal/objective as there can be various ways to achieve organisation goal.

Evaluating alternative courses:

The next step is to weigh the opportunities and obstacles of each alternative. every course can have several variables that have to be weighed against each variable. The  positive  and   negative   aspects   of   each   proposal  need  to  be  evaluated  in  the  light  of  the  objective  to  be  achieved.       

Selecting an alternative:

It is the final stage of the planning process in which the best and most feasible will be chosen to be implemented.

Follow up-action:

Once the plan is implemented by the manager the next work of the manager is to monitor the plan constantly and take feedback at regular intervals. Monitoring of plans will ensure that the plans are being implemented according to the schedule.

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