Explain scripts in details with example for artificial intelligence
A script is a structured representation describing a stereotyped sequence of events in a particular context.
Scripts are used in natural language understanding systems to organize a knowledge base in terms of the situations that the system should understand. Scripts use a frame-like structure to represent the commonly occurring experience like going to the movies eating in a restaurant, shopping in a supermarket, or visiting an ophthalmologist.
Thus, a script is a structure that prescribes a set of circumstances that could be expected to follow on from one another.
Scripts are beneficial because:
Events tend to occur in known runs or patterns.
A casual relationship between events exist.
An entry condition exists which allows an event to take place.
Prerequisites exist upon events taking place.
Components of a script
The components of a script include:
Entry condition: These are basic condition which must be fulfilled before events in the script can occur.
Results: Condition that will be true after events in script occurred.
Props: Slots representing objects involved in events
Roles: These are the actions that the individual participants perform.
Track: Variations on the script. Different tracks may share components of the same scripts.
Scenes: The sequence of events that occur.
Describing a script, special symbols of actions are used. These are:
|ATRANS||transfer a relationship||give|
|PTRANS||transfer physical location of an object||go|
|PROPEL||apply physical force to an object||push|
|MOVE||move body part by owner||kick|
|GRASP||grab an object by an actor||hold|
|INGEST||taking an object by an animal eat||drink|
|EXPEL||expel from animal’s body||cry|
|MTRANS||transfer mental information||tell|
|MBUILD||mentally make new information||decide|
|CONC||conceptualize or think about an idea||think|
|ATTEND||focus sense organ||listen|
Example:-Script for going to the bank to withdraw money.
SCRIPT : Withdraw money
TRACK : Bank
PROPS : Money
Roles : P= Customer
Entry conditions: P has no or less money.
The bank is open.
Results : P has more money.
Scene 1: Entering
P PTRANS P into the Bank
P ATTEND eyes to E
P MOVE P to E
Scene 2: Filling form
P MTRANS signal to E
E ATRANS form to P
P PROPEL form for writing
P ATRANS form to P
E ATRANS form to P
Scene 3: Withdrawing money
P ATTEND eyes to counter
P PTRANS P to queue at the counter
P PTRANS token to C
C ATRANS money to P
Scene 4: Exiting the bank
P PTRANS P to out of bank
Advantages of Scripts
Ability to predict events.
A single coherent interpretation maybe builds up from a collection of observations.
Disadvantages of Scripts