C# Interview Questions and Answers

Top C# Interview Questions and Answers
  1. What is C#?

    C# is the best language for writing Microsoft .NET applications. C# provides the rapid application development found in Visual Basic with the power of C++. Its syntax is similar to C++ syntax and meets 100% of the requirements of OOPs like the following:
  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Polymorphism
  • Inheritance

To know more about C# Language read the following article:

The latest version of C# is C# 6.0 with lots of new features, to know them read the following article:

  1. What is an Object?

    According to MSDN, "a class or struct definition is like a blueprint that specifies what the type can do. An object is basically a block of memory that has been allocated and configured according to the blueprint. A program may create many objects of the same class. Objects are also called instances, and they can be stored in either a named variable or in an array or collection. Client code is the code that uses these variables to call the methods and access the public properties of the object. In an object-oriented language such as C#, a typical program consists of multiple objects interacting dynamically".

    Objects helps us to access the member of a class or struct either they can be fields, methods or properties, by using the dot. To know more about object read the following links:
  1. What is Managed or Unmanaged Code?

    Managed Code

    “The code, which is developed in .NET framework is known as managed code. This code is directly executed by CLR with the help of managed code execution. Any language that is written in .NET Framework is managed code”.

    Unmanaged Code

    The code, which is developed outside .NET framework is known as unmanaged code.

    “Applications that do not run under the control of the CLR are said to be unmanaged, and certain languages such as C++ can be used to write such applications, which, for example, access low - level functions of the operating system. Background compatibility with the code of VB, ASP and COM are examples of unmanaged code”.

    Unmanaged code can be unmanaged source code and unmanaged compile code. Unmanaged code is executed with the help of wrapper classes.

    Wrapper classes are of two types:
  • CCW (COM Callable Wrapper).
  • RCW (Runtime Callable Wrapper).
  1. What is Boxing and Unboxing?

    Answer:Boxing and Unboxing both are used for type conversion but have some difference:

    Boxing:

    Boxing is the process of converting a value type data type to the object or to any interface data type which is implemented by this value type. When the CLR boxes a value means when CLR is converting a value type to Object Type, it wraps the value inside a System.Object and stores it on the heap area in application domain.

    Example:



    Unboxing:

    Unboxing is also a process which is used to extract the value type from the object or any implemented interface type. Boxing may be done implicitly, but unboxing have to be explicit by code. 

    Example:



    The concept of boxing and unboxing underlines the C# unified view of the type system in which a value of any type can be treated as an object.

    For more details read this:
  1. What is the difference between a struct and a class in C#?

    Answer:

Class and struct both are the user defined data type but have some major difference:

Struct

  • The struct is value type in C# and it inherits from System.Value Type.
  • Struct is usually used for smaller amounts of data.
  • Struct can’t be inherited to other type.
  • A structure can't be abstract.
  • No need to create object by new keyword.
  • Do not have permission to create any default constructor.

Class

  • The class is reference type in C# and it inherits from the System.Object Type.
  • Classes are usually used for large amounts of data.
  • Classes can be inherited to other class.
  • A class can be abstract type.
  • We can’t use an object of a class with using new keyword.
  • We can create a default constructor.

For more details just go with the following link:

  1. What is the difference between Interface and Abstract Class?

    Answer:

    Theoretically their are some differences between Abstract Class and Interface which are listed below:
  • A class can implement any number of interfaces but a subclass can at most use only one abstract class.
  • An abstract class can have non-abstract methods (concrete methods) while in case of interface all the methods has to be abstract.
  • An abstract class can declare or use any variables while an interface is not allowed to do so.
  • In an abstract class all data member or functions are private by default while in interface all are public, we can’t change them manually.
  • In an abstract class we need to use abstract keyword to declare abstract methods while in an interface we don’t need to use that.
  • An abstract class can’t be used for multiple inheritance while interface can be used as multiple inheritance.
  • An abstract class use constructor while in an interface we don’t have any type of constructor.

To know more about the difference between Abstract Class and Interface go to the following link:

  1. What is enum in C#?

    Answer:

    An enum is a value type with a set of related named constants often referred to as an enumerator list. The enum keyword is used to declare an enumeration. It is a primitive data type, which is user defined.

    An enum type can be an integer (float, int, byte, double etc.). But if you used beside int it has to be cast.

    An enum is used to create numeric constants in .NET framework. All the members of enum are of enum type. Their must be a numeric value for each enum type.

    The default underlying type of the enumeration element is int. By default, the first enumerator has the value 0, and the value of each successive enumerator is increased by 1.
  2. enumDow {Sat, Sun, Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri};  

Some points about enum

  • Enums are enumerated data type in c#.
  • Enums are not for end-user, they are meant for developers.
  • Enums are strongly typed constant. They are strongly typed, i.e. an enum of one type may not be implicitly assigned to an enum of another type even though the underlying value of their members are the same.
  • Enumerations (enums) make your code much more readable and understandable.
  • Enum values are fixed. Enum can be displayed as a string and processed as an integer.
  • The default type is int, and the approved types are byte, sbyte, short, ushort, uint, long, and ulong.
  • Every enum type automatically derives from System.Enum and thus we can use System.Enum methods on enums.
  • Enums are value types and are created on the stack and not on the heap.

For more details follow the link:

  1. What is the difference between “continue” and “break” statements in C#?

    Answer:

    Using break statement, you can 'jump out of a loop' whereas by using continue statement, you can 'jump over one iteration' and then resume your loop execution.

    Eg. Break Statement
    using System;  
    namespace break_example
    {
        class brk_stmt
        {
            public static void main(String[] args)
            {
                for (int i = 0; i <= 5; i++)
                {
                    if (i == 4)
                    {
                        break;
                    }
                    Console.WriteLine("The number is " + i);
                    Console.ReadLine();
                }
            }
        }
    }​

Output 

The number is 0; 
The number is 1; 
The number is 2; 
The number is 3;

Eg.Continue Statement

using System;
namespace continue_example
{
    class cntnu_stmt
    {
        public static void Main(String[] args)
        {
            for (int i = 0; i <= 5; i++)
            {
                if (i == 4)
                {
                    continue;
                }
                Console.WriteLine("Thenumber is " + i);
                Console.ReadLine();
            }
        }
    }
}

     

Output

The number is 1;
The number is 2;
The number is 3;
The number is 5; 


For more details follow link:

  1. What is the difference between constant and read only in c#?

    Answer:

    Constant(const) and Readonly (readonly) both looks like same as per the uses but they have some differences: 

    Constant is known as “const” keyword in C# which is also known immutable values which are known at compile time and do not change their values at run time like in any function or constructor for the life of application till the application is running.

    Readonly is known as “readonly” keyword in C# which is also known immutable values and are known at compile and run time and do not change their values at run time like in any function for the life of application till the application is running. You can assay their value by constructor when we call constructor with “new” keyword.

    See the example

    We have a Test Class in which we have two variables one is readonly and another is constant.
    using System;
    class Test
    {
        readonly int read = 10;
        const int cons = 10;
        public Test()
        {
            read = 100;
            cons = 100;
        }
        public void Check()
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Read only : {0}", read);
            Console.WriteLine("const : {0}", cons);
        }
    }​

Here I was trying to change the value of both the variables in constructor but when I am trying to change the constant it gives an error to change their value in that block which have to call at run time.



So finally remove that line of code from class and call this Check() function like the following code snippet:

using System;
class Program
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        Test obj = new Test();
        obj.Check();
        Console.ReadLine();
    }
}
class Test
{
    readonly int read = 10;
    const int cons = 10;
    public Test()
    {
        read = 100;
    }
    public void Check()
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Read only : {0}", read);
        Console.WriteLine("const : {0}", cons);
    }
}

Output:




To know more go to the following link:

  1. What is the difference between ref and out keywords?

    Answer:

    In C Sharp (C#) we can have three types of parameters in a function. The parameters can be in parameter (which is not returned back to the caller of the function), out parameter and ref parameter. We have lots of differences in both of them.



    For more details go to the following link:
  1. Can “this” be used within a static method?

    Answer:

    We can't use this in static method because keyword 'this' returns a reference to the current instance of the class containing it. Static methods (or any static member) do not belong to a particular instance. They exist without creating an instance of the class and call with the name of a class not by instance so we can’t use this keyword in the body of static Methods, but in case of Extension Methods we can use it the functions parameters. Let’s have a look on “this” keyword.

    The "this" keyword is a special type of reference variable that is implicitly defined within each constructor and non-static method as a first parameter of the type class in which it is defined. For example, consider the following class written in C#.

    For more follow this link:
  1. Define Property in C#.net?

    Answer:

    Properties are members that provide a flexible mechanism to read, write or compute the values of private fields, in other words by the property we can access private fields. In other words we can say that a property is a return type function/method with one parameter or without a parameter. These are always public data members. It uses methods to access and assign values to private fields called accessors.

    Now question is what are accessors?

    The get and set portions or blocks of a property are called accessors. These are useful to restrict the accessibility of a property, the set accessor specifies that we can assign a value to a private field in a property and without the set accessor property it is like a read-only field. By the get accessor we can access the value of the private field, in other words it returns a single value. A Get accessor specifies that we can access the value of a field publically.

    We have the three types of properties
  • Read/Write.
  • ReadOnly.
  • WriteOnly

For more details follow the link:

  1. What is extension method in c# and how to use them?

    Answer:

    Extension methods enable you to add methods to existing types without creating a new derived type, recompiling, or otherwise modifying the original type. An extension method is a special kind of static method, but they are called as if they were instance methods on the extended type.

    How to use extension methods?


    An extension method is a static method of a static class, where the "this" modifier is applied to the first parameter. The type of the first parameter will be the type that is extended.

    Extension methods are only in scope when you explicitly import the namespace into your source code with a using directive.

    Like: suppose we have a class like bellow:
    public class Class1
    {
        public string Display()
        {
            return ("I m in Display");
        }
        public string Print()
        {
            return ("I m in Print");
        }
    }​

Now we need to extend the definition of this class so m going to create a static class to create an extinction method like:

public static class XX
{
    public static void NewMethod(this Class1 ob)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Hello I m extended method");
    }
}

Here I just create a method that name is NewMethod with a parameter using this to define which type of data I need to be extend, now let’s see how to use this function.


class Program
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        Class1 ob = new Class1();
        ob.Display();
        ob.Print();
        ob.NewMethod();
        Console.ReadKey();
    }
}

 

Output will be: 



For more details you can read this article:

Or watch my video article link

  1. What is the difference between dispose and finalize methods in c#?

    Answer: finalizer and dispose both are used for same task like to free unmanaged resources but have some differences see.

    Finalize:
  • Finalize used to free unmanaged resources those are not in use like files, database connections in application domain and more, held by an object before that object is destroyed.
  • In the Internal process it is called by Garbage Collector and can’t called manual by user code or any service.
  • Finalize belongs to System.Object class.
  • Implement it when you have unmanaged resources in your code, and make sure that these resources are freed when the Garbage collection happens.

Dispose:

  • Dispose is also used to free unmanaged resources those are not in use like files, database connections in Application domain at any time.
  • Dispose explicitly it is called by manual user code.
  • If we need to dispose method so must implement that class by IDisposable interface.
  • It belongs to IDisposable interface.
  • Implement this when you are writing a custom class that will be used by other users.

For more details follow this link:

  1. What is the difference between string and StringBuilder in c#?

    Answer:

    StringBuilder and string both use to store string value but both have many differences on the bases of instance creation and also for performance:

    String:

    String is an immutable object. Immutable like when we create string object in code so we cannot modify or change that object in any operations like insert new value, replace or append any value with existing value in string object, when we have to do some operations to change string simply it will dispose the old value of string object and it will create new instance in memory for hold the new value in string object like:


    Note:
  • It’s an immutable object that hold string value.
  • Performance wise string is slow because its’ create a new instance to override or change the previous value.
  • String belongs to System namespace.

StringBuilder:

System.Text.Stringbuilder is mutable object which also hold the string value, mutable means once we create a System.Text.Stringbuilder object we can use this object for any operation like insert value in existing string with insert functions also replace or append without creating new instance of System.Text.Stringbuilder for every time so it’s use the previous object so it’s work fast as compare than System.String. Let’s have an example to understand System.Text.Stringbuilder like:


Note:

  • StringBuilder is a mutable object.
  • Performance wise StringBuilder is very fast because it will use same instance of StringBuilder object to perform any operation like insert value in existing string.
  • StringBuilder belongs to System.Text.Stringbuilder namespace.

For More details read this article by following link:

  1. What is delegates in C# and uses of delegates?

    Answer:

    C# delegates are same as pointers to functions, in C or C++. A delegate Object is a reference type variable that use to holds the reference to a method. The reference can be changed at runtime which is hold by an object of delegate, a delegate object can hold many functions reference which is also known as Invocation List that refers functions in a sequence FIFO, we can new functions ref in this list at run time by += operator and can remove by -= operator.

    Delegates are especially used for implementing events and the call-back methods. All delegates are implicitly derived from the System.Delegate class.

    Let’s see how to use Delegate with Example:


    For More details read this article:
  1. What is sealed class in c#?

    Answer:

    Sealed classes are used to restrict the inheritance feature of object oriented programming. Once a class is defined as a sealed class, the class cannot be inherited.

    In C#, the sealed modifier is used to define a class as sealed. In Visual Basic .NET the Not Inheritable keyword serves the purpose of sealed. If a class is derived from a sealed class then the compiler throws an error. 

    If you have ever noticed, structs are sealed. You cannot derive a class from a struct. 

    The following class definition defines a sealed class in C#: 
    // Sealed class
    sealed class SealedClass  
    {  
    }  ​

Read continue for more details by the following link:

  1. What are partial classes?

    Answer:

    A partial class is only use to splits the definition of a class in two or more classes in a same source code file or more than one source files. You can create a class definition in multiple files but it will be compiled as one class at run time and also when you’ll create an instance of this class so you can access all the methods from all source file with a same object.

    Partial Classes can be create in the same namespace it’s doesn’t allowed to create a partial class in different namespace. So use “partial” keyword with all the class name which you want to bind together with the same name of class in same namespace, let’s have an example:


    For more go with following link:
  1. What is boxing and unboxing?

    Answer:

    Boxing and Unboxing both using for type converting but have some difference:

    Boxing:


    Boxing is the process of converting a value type data type to the object or to any interface data type which is implemented by this value type. When the CLR boxes a value means when CLR converting a value type to Object Type, it wraps the value inside a System.Object and stores it on the heap area in application domain.

    Example:


    Unboxing:

    Unboxing is also a process which is use to extracts the value type from the object or any implemented interface type. Boxing may be done implicit but unboxing have to be explicit by code. 

    Example:


    The concept of boxing and unboxing underlies the C# unified view of the type system in which a value of any type can be treated as an object.

    For more details:
  1. What is IEnumerable<> in c#?



Answer: 

IEnumerable is the parent interface for all non-generic collections in System.Collections namespace like ArrayList, HastTable etc. that can be enumerated. For the generic version of this interface as IEnumerable<T> which a parent interface of all generic collections class in System.Collections.Generic namespace like List<> and more. 

In System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<T> have only a single method which is GetEnumerator() that returns an IEnumerator. IEnumerator provides the power to iterate through the collection by exposing a Current property and Move Next and Reset methods, if we doesn’t have this interface as a parent so we can’t use iteration by foreach loop or can’t use that class object in our LINQ query.